Italian anthropologist Flavia Cangia (2012) states that performing arts are the result of recreation, dynamic interpretation by ethnic groups through a continuous process of social interaction. Performing arts in Gorontalo include Molapi Saronde, Langga, Tidi Lo O'ayabu, Tidi Lo Malu'o, Tidi Da'a, and Dana-Dana.

A. Molapi Saronde

Molapi Saronde is one of the performing arts that functions as a means of ritual, which is part of the wedding ceremony. Molapi Saronde is danced on the night of the engagement called Huyi Mopo Tilandahu which is performed by the groom at the bride's house. Molapi Saronde accompanied by tambourine and Turunani (vocal art with Islamic nuances).

4. Intangible-Start the Molapi Saronde procession

Figure 1. Preparation of the Molapi Saronde procession. In front of the groom is placed Tapahula (Photo: Haris).

5. Intangible-The groom sees the bride

Figure 2. The groom looks at the bride sitting in the bedroom during the Molapi Saronde ritual dance.

The presentation of Molapi Saronde is marked by seven beats of the tambourine as a code or preparation of the dancers. Previously, a large Tapahula (cultural attribute storage box on wedding preparation) was prepared which contained three kinds of scarves, namely green, yellow and amber color. The dancers who dance Molapi Saronde are the groom and three Bubato (traditional leaders). Furthermore, the four male dancers will in turn hand over scarves to other selected men, both young and old as a sign to continue the Molapi Saronde dance.

B. Langga

6. Intangible-Langga

Figure 3. Langga.

One type of traditional martial arts that is on the verge of extinction is Langga. Langga is one of the identity and intangible heritage of the ancestors of the Bone Bolango community in Gorontalo. Langga functions as self-defense and territorial defense. In addition, Langga is used as a means of education and community character building (Hadjarati & Hidayah, 2016). Langga has basic movements physically (self-defense movements to deal with real enemies) and spiritually (self-defense in the face of unseen enemies). The Langga ritual procession is pitodu, mopopasi, and a connecting medium using a rooster.

C. Tidi Lo O'ayabu

Gorontalo traditional dances are always based on Gorontalo traditional patterns. Tidi dance is a classical Gorontalo dance that developed in the 17th and 18th centuries in the palace circles.

Tidi means dance. The word tidi confirms that this dance is a type of classical dance. O'ayabu means fan. the number of dancers Tidi lo O'ayabu is 5 people. The traditional dress used is madipungu with five sunti stalks. The accompaniment of the tidi lo o'ayabu dance is tambourine and flute.

7. Intangible-Tidi Lo Oayabu

Figure 4. Tidi Lo O'ayabu (Photo: Salman/Haris).

The Tidi lo O'ayabu dance has 14 movements that have their own meaning from each dance movement. There are 14 tidi lo o'ayabu dance movements, including the movement of waving a fan, which means dispelling all challenges. Tidi lo O'ayabu illustrates the importance of subtlety and wisdom for a woman.

D. Tidi Lo Malu'o

Tidi Lo Malu'o was created to follow the behavior of a chicken that walks gracefully with beautiful movements. Tidi means dance. Malu'o means chicken. Chickens have regular movements and are graceful in walking. This dance first appeared during the reign of King Eyato and was performed at the wedding procession of a noble's child.

8. Intangible-Tidi Lo Maluo

Figure 5. Tidi Lo Malu'o.

Tidi Lo Malu'o is one of the classical dances of the eight classical dances in Gorontalo. Tidi Lo Malu'o dance is assumed to be influenced by Islamic culture. Tidi Lo Malu'o describes how to give advice to young women to be diligent and skilled in every job and pray, which is likened to a chicken who is diligent and welcomes the morning sun.

E. Tidi Da'a

9. Intangible-Tidi Daa

Figure 6. Tidi Da'a.

Tidi Da'a is danced by the bride and groom as an apology to both parents for all mistakes from childhood to entering the marriage stage. Tidi Da'a is performed by the bride (Bulenditi) in Yiladia (palace) after carrying out the Akad in a traditional wedding ceremony.

F. Dana-Dana

The Dana-dana dance was originally created for Muslim youth with the aim of entertaining and to strengthen friendships and for the spread of Islam, through poetry sung by the accompaniment of the Dana-dana dance. The Dana Dana dance has been present in Gorontalo since the 1500s AD, or when Islam entered Gorontalo. This dance was first performed at the wedding of Sultan Amai and Putri Owutango.

10. Intangible-Dana-Dana

Figure 7. Dana-Dana.

The Dana Dana dance is usually dominated by almost all body parts with dynamic and energetic movements. The movements in this dance tend to be fast-paced. The Dana-Dana dance is accompanied by musical instruments such as tambourines and stringed instruments. The rhythm used usually tends to be fast in accordance with the movements of the dancers and singers. The songs that are performed usually contain rhymes with the theme of life and religious messages.

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