Traditions and Oral Expressions Gorontalo are Polo Palo Games, Tanggomo, Lohidu, Tahuli, Paiya lo Hungo lo Poli, Tuja'I, Wunungo, Tidi lo Polo Palo, Palebohu, Me'eraji, Momeati, Tolobalango, Tepa Tonggo, Turunani, Leningo, and Buruda Gorontalo.

A. Polo Palo Games

29a. Intangible-Polo Palo

Figure 1. Polo Palo.

29b. Intangible-Polo Palo Games

Figure 2. Polo Palo games.

Polopalo is a folk game from Gorontalo. Polopalo is made of dried bamboo which is played by hitting it. The shape is similar to a tuning fork. If hit with a wooden stick, the bamboo will vibrate and make a loud sound. At the base, there is a small hole to adjust the sound. When played the hole can be closed with a finger. When closed it will produce a high note called moelenggengo and once opened it will produce a low note called mobulongo.

B. Tanggomo

29c. Intangible-Risno Ahaya, the maestro of the Gorontalo tanggomo, plays the gambus while performing the tanggomo.

Figure 3. Risno Ahaya, the maestro of tanggomo, plays the gambus while performing the tanggomo.

Tanggomo is one of the folk arts that contains events whose source stories come from real events, folklore, or the narrator's own fiction. The most prominent cultural values ​​in tanggomo are historical values, for example the story of the patriotic incident on January 23, 1942 about the struggle of the people of Gorontalo to seize independence from the Dutch colonialists.

C. Lohidu

Lohidu is an expression of one's feelings in the form of folk songs, or traditional Gorontalo songs. Lohidu can be likened to a rhyme that is sung. The language used in Lohidu is Gorontalo. Lohidu is usually done during the day and at night while guarding gardens, rice fields, fishing in rivers, lakes or in the sea. The accompaniment is gambus.

D. Tahuli

Tahuli is the custom and culture of the Gorontalo region. Tahuli means that humans have a sense of responsibility, are smart, clever, and have a sense of deliberation in dealing with problems. The provisions of deliberation until consensus finally have a strategic ability in resolving various kinds of disputes that occur in the community. Tahuli by traditional stakeholders was delivered at the official coronation ceremony. Tahuli was first conveyed by traditional holders at the time of King Eyato's coronation. Tahuli means giving advice to the leader (olongia) in the form of rhyme words (tujai) which are carried out alternately by 10 traditional stakeholders.

E. Paiya lo Hungo lo Poli

Pa'iya lo hungo lo poli is a variety of regional oral literature related to young people's associations. Pa'iya lo hungo lo poli comes from the Gorontalo area which consists of the word "paiya" which means to throw; "lo" conjunction; "poli" a kind of tree with light fruit. The light poli fruit contains the meaning of throwing words without hurting each other. This is in accordance with the life philosophy of the Gorontalo people who adhere to a polite pattern in expressing opinions, advice and even criticism. Pa'iya lo hungo lo poli poems contain love, affection, happiness in life, beauty, failure, advice and others. Musical accompaniment Pa'iya lo hungo lo poli in the form of traditional instruments such as stringed strings and clapping marwas.

F. Tuja’i

Tujai is a variety of traditional poetry containing words of praise and prayer. Tujai is performed at wedding, coronation, guest reception and death ceremonies. Tujai was first held in the sixteenth century around 1563 in the marriage of Sultan Amay with Princess Autango, daughter of King Palasa from Palu.

G. Wunungo

Wunungo, which means interlude, is a song in which the poems are filled with respect, advice and gratitude, which are usually performed during recitation of the Qur'an. Wunungo also in the Gorontalo language is a poem that contains religious advice, especially Islam and is sung and recited together or in groups. Wunungo is thought to have existed in the 18th century after many people knew and read the Qur'an.

H. Tidi lo Polopalo

29d. Intangible-Tidi lo Polo Palo

Figure 4. Tidi lo Polopalo.

The term Tidi lo Polopalo comes from two words in the Gorontalo language, namely tidi and polopalo. Tidi is interpreted as a special dance for the palace family, because the beginning of the creation of this dance in the palace environment. Furthermore, the word polopalo is the name of a traditional Gorontalo musical instrument, which is made of a piece of bamboo or the midrib of sago palm leaves. This instrument is played by vibrating it (polopalo = vibrating), causing a melodious sound. The choice of words in Tidi lo Polopalo's poem contains a message for every human being to uphold the etiquette of respecting each other in terms of speech.

I. Palebohu

Palebohu is an oral literature that uses the Gorontalo language and is often recited on the wedding day when the bride and groom are side by side on the aisle as marriage advice and at the coronation of officials. The structure of palebohu oral literature poetry in marriage with the rhyme formula a a a a. The elements contained in palebohu oral literature are teaching advice, practice, patience, mutual care, invitations, messages, motivation, praise, and warnings.

J. Me’eraji

29e. Intangible-Meeraji

Figure 5. Me’eraji (Photo: Burdu).

Me'eraji is one of the activities of the people of Gorontalo which is specifically related to the implementation of the Israk-Mikraj commemoration of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. The purpose of me'eraji is to strengthen the faith of Muslims, especially in the Gorontalo area. Me'eraji is held from the end of the Isha prayer until before the Fajr prayer which is held in the mosque and in people's homes.

K. Mome’ati

29f. Intangible-Momeati

Figure 6. Mome’ati (Photo: Burdu).

The traditional mome'ati ceremony is the pronunciation of promises/pledges of acknowledgment of the Oneness of Allah and the Messenger of Allah through two Sahadat sentences. This ceremony is performed on girls who have grown up (menstruation). Mome'ati's social functions are self-cleaning physically and mentally, moral education, prudence in stepping, and strengthening Islamic teachings.

L. Tolobalango

29g. Intangible-Tolobalango

Figure 7. A traditional figure from the bride receives the offering brought by the utolias or envoys from the groom at the traditional motolobalango procession (marriage proposal) at the bride's house. Motolobalango is the fifth stage of the 14 stages of Gorontalo wedding customs (Photo: Salman/Haris).

Tolobalango is the delivery of the intent of an official event attended by traditional stakeholders, state officials and families through a spokesperson for the groom's family (Luntu Dulungo Layi'o) and a spokesperson for the bride's family representative (Luntu Dulungo Wulato) to carry out the marriage proposal. The conveying of intent is expressed through oral poetry in the form of parables.

M. Tepa Tonggo

29h. Intangible-Tepa tonggo

Figure 8. Tepa Tonggo

Tepa tonggo is a kicking and crouching game. Tepa Tonggo as one of the traditional sports of the people of Gorontalo. The traditional sports games of Tepa Tonggo are accompanied by musical instruments such as tambourine, polopalo, drum, and flute. The ball used is a fireball.

N. Turunani

Turunani is a vocal art with Islamic nuances accompanied by the beat of a tambourine. The form of Turunani music in each presentation is different starting from the duration of the game, the tempo used, the type of song, the language, the pattern of the beat, the basic tone, and the meaning of the poem.

O. Leningo

Leningo is a poem that contains proverbs, wise words or expressions that can be used as guidelines for life in behavior in the province of Gorontalo. Leningo is a kind of poetry that rhymes and consists of four lines in each stanza. The stanzas of leningo's poetry mostly contain advice that one day we will leave the world so that it gives awareness to the listeners.

P. Burdah

Burdah is the name of the creator of traditional Gorontalo art influenced by Islamic culture from Persia. Burdah was seriously ill (high blood pressure) then had a dream. In his sleep, upon awakening from his sleep, the Burdah immediately recovered from his illness. Then he compiled Buruda poetry in 18 titles.

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